clinical- abdomen & inguinoscrotal discussion


Abdominal Examination & signs CLD

What are signs of CLD?
Clubbing: Obliteration of angle between nail & nail bed – chr. disease
Palmar erythema: (sign of decompensated CLD) in hypothenar, thenar, head of metacarpals & tip fingers
Flapping tremors: sign decompansated CLD
Dupuytren’s contracture: nodular or cord like fibrosis of palmar fascia of ring +/- little finger in (alcohol, CLD, DM, drug, manual workers) – D.D. ulnar claw hand
Jaundice: sign decompensated CLD - seen in sclera
Hepatic fetor: sign decompansated CLD
Spider naevi: is sign CLD- central arteriole with radiating branches – in H & N (distribution of SVC)- > 6 in distribution SVC is pathological
Gyaencomastia: is sign CLD- other causes: physiological- drugs (cimitidine-spironolactone)- hormonal ttt – tumors secr hs (testicular or adrenal)

What are signs of decompansated CLD?
Flapping tremors
Fetor hepaticus

What are signs P.H.? Splenomegaly, ascites & caput medusa (rare)

What are the porto-systemic shunts?   ………………………..

In abdominal palpation keep hand & forearm at same level

Where is traub’s area? Lower rib cage ant. to MAL
                                  ( Above: 6th rib, below: costal margin, lat.: MAL )

Difference between splenic & renal swelling? Splenic swelling has following ccc
cannot insinuate hand between it & C.M.
not felt in renal angle
continous with dullness over Traub’s area
cannot get above it
no area of resonance above it
    renal swelling is the reverse

What is diagnosis of this case (CLD)? Example,
Tinge of jaundice, pallor, clubbing, Liver enlarged- Rt lobe 5 cm below C.M., well defined edge, smooth surface, firm consistency, Lt lobe 5 Cm below C.M. ,………., liver span is 18 cm, spleen enlarged 7 cm below C.M., no masses felt
Case of HSM propably CLD

Evaluation of CLD?
Lab: FBC (anemia from bleeding or chr.ds, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia from splenomegaly)
T.Bilirubin ↑ (mixed but mainly indirect)
Alb. ↓
Bleeding profile
Abdominal U/S: Liver size (enlarged/shrunken), spleen (N/enlarged), P.V. (P.H.), HCC
UGI Endoscopy

What are the Lethal complications CLD?
HCC (malignant change)
SBP (spontaneous bac. Peritonitis) C/O: F & abdominal pain

What is ttt CLD?
If compensated → liver supportive ttt
If uncompensated → liver transplantation (according to Child score: 5items: Bil, Alb, INR, encephalopathy & ascites)

What is Koilonychia? Spoon shaped nails in iron deficiency anaemia

What is Leuconychia? White nails (due to hypoalbuminemia)

How to suspect Ascites? LL edema (Gen.exam.) & full flanks by inspection

How to examine for ascites?
Mild → U/S,     Moderate → shifting dullness,      Severe→ fluid thrill

Causes of clubbing?
1-    GIT: liver cirrhosis, Inflamm.B.D., malabs.
2-    Resp.: Bronchial carcinoma, mesothelioma, suppurative lung ds
3-    Cardiac: cong. Cyanotic ht. ds, IEC
4-    Familial & occupational

What does oral pigmentation indicate? Peutz Jhegar syndrome = oral pigmentation + intestinal polyps

What does supraclavicular L.N. indicate? Abdominal malignancy (e.g, stomach & pancreas)

What are diseases of umbilicus?
Metastatic nodules
Discharge (urine or pus)
Dilated veins (caput medusa) = P.H.

What are causes of Hepatomegaly?
1-    Inf.: viral→hepatitis B & C, CMV, IMN (EBV), Bac→T.B., abscess, Protozoa→ Bilharz., amoeba, malaria
2-    Neopl.: 1ry (HCC), 2ries, lymphoma, leukemia
3-    Metab. & storage ds: Alcohol, Glycogen storage d, Wilson, Hemochromatosis
4-    CHF
What are causes of Splenomegaly?
1-    Inf.: viral→ CMV, IMN (EBV), Bac→  abscess, Protozoa→ Bilharz., malaria, Leishmaniasis (Kala azar)
2-    Neopl.: lymphoma, leukemia
3-    Metab. & storage ds: amyloidosis & sarcoidosis
4-    Blood ds: Hemolytic anemia

What are causes of massive Splenomegaly?
1-    CML
2-    Malaria
3-    Kala azar (Leishmaniasis)
4-    Myelofibrosis

What are causes of HSM?
1-    Portal hypertension
2-    Inf.: viral→ CMV, IMN (EBV), Bac→  abscess, Protozoa→ Bilharz., malaria
3-    Neopl.: lymphoma, leukemia

What are causes of ascites?
General causes: CLD, CHF (Rt VF), Nephrotic (rare), Hypoalbuminemia
Local causes: abdominal malign., T.B., chylous ascites (lymphatic obstr.) (rare)

OSCE advanced Qs
How to  interpret ascetic tap? Taken under complete Aseptic condition
Transudate: protein < 30gm/L, due to CHF or Trauma
Exudate: protein > 30gm/L, due to Cirrhosis or malign.
What is ttt ascites?
1-      diuretics
2-      salt restriction
3-      weight reduction
4-      Shunts (if above failed): Lee veen shunt to IJV or TIPSS (bet P.V. & Hep V.)
What is Portal Hypertension? ↑ P.V. pr. > 10mmHg (N=5-10mmHg)→ reverse or ↓ flow in liver
Causes P.H.?
Extrahepatic: P.V. or Splenic v. thrombosis
Intrahepatic: Cirrhosis, CHF, Bilharz.(ova obstr, portal venules), sarcoidosis
Indic. Splenectomy? Trauma, Hypersplenism (hemolytic anemia, ITP, CML)
Post-splenic blood film? ↑plat., ↑ WBCs. Howell jolly bodies
Functions of spleen? Immunity (IgM & opsonization, capsulated orgs as pneumococci, H.inf, Meningococci), Bl.storage, Fe storage
Post-splenectomy precautions? Vaccines (Pneumococci, H.inf, Meningococci), LAP, beware malaria
What is jaundice? Yellowish discoloration of sclera & mucus membrane (best seen in soft palate)
To see jaundice in sclera T.Bil > 50 μmol/L (N= 17 μmol/L)
Causes Jaundice?

Hemolytic anemia
Heridetary (Gilbert ds)
Decompansated CLd
Stone in CBD
Cancer head of pancreas
Type Bilirubin
Conjugated (+/- un)
Level Bilirubin
Investigation of jaundice case?
Lab: FBC, LFT, KFT (hepato-renal), Bl.profile. , Radio: U/S (liver size, CBD dilatation), CT
Causes Post-operative jaundice? Prehepatic→bl.transfusion, Hep→anesthesia, sepsis, PostH→bilary injury
What is Malgaigne bulge? Bulge above lat. Part of ing.lig. with straining due to weak ms in old

D.D. Abdominal mass

D.D. mass RIF (Rt iliac fossa)?
1- GIT: Cecal carcinoma (presented by persistent anemia +/- mass +/- I.O.)
Crohn’s disease
2- Urinary: Ectopic kidney, transplanted kidney
3- Male: Undescended testis with malignancy
4- Female: Ovarian mass or fibroid uterus
5- Inflammation (appendicular mass, T.B., Psoas abscess, Crohn’s)
6- L.N.

D.D. mass LIF?
1- Sigmoid carcinoma (presentation acute I.O. +/- mass)
2- Diverticular disease (esp, Diverticular abscess)

D.D. mass in epigastrium?
1- epigastric hernia
2- GIT: Lt lobe of liver, cancer stomach, cancer pancreas & pseudo-pancreatic cyst
3- Vascular: AAA
4- paraaortic L.N. (esp, 2ry to testicular tumor)

D.D. mass in groin?
1- Skin & SCT: lipoma, seb.cyst, impl. Dermoid cyst
2- GIT: Hernia (inguinal or femoral)
3- GenitoUrinary T: ectopic testis +/- tumor, transplanted kid.
4- Vascular: a.→femoral a. aneurysm, v.→saphena varix, lymphatic→L.N.
5- ms: psoas abscess

What is tidal percussion?
Percussion of upper border of liver & differentiate from lung dullness
Percuss in intercostals spaces (4th opposite nipple in males) or from 2nd (sternal angle)
Dullness found usually in 5th space
Ask pt. to take deep inspiration & hold breath
Percuss again if change note → liver, if still dull → lung consolidation

What is diagnosis of abdominal case? Example
Case 1: Mass in Rt iliac fossa, solid, welll defined edge, smooth surface, firm consistency, measure 5 X 5 cms, not reducible, not pulsatile.
Mass in the RIF & Considering age (old) have to exclude cancer by:
1- Colonoscopy & Biopsy
2- CT scan
3- exploration

How to manage abdominal mass suspected to be cancer?
1- Colonoscopy & Biopsy
2- CT scan
3- exploration

How to diagnose mass RIF?
U/S (to exclude ectopic kidney, aneurysm, L.N., female causes)
Scrotal examination to exclude undescended testis
Colonoscopy & biopsy for suspected cancer cecum
Abd. Exam. L.N. are multiple, irregular, rubbery (not in exam)
Abd. Exam. Inflamm. (appendicular mass) Tender, signs inflamm., irregular, fixed (not in exam)

How to manage ectopic kid. (mass RIF)?
Reassurance (not appendicitis)
Abdominal U/S: for diagnosis
IVU or Renal scan: for function
If non-functioning → nephrectomy ????????

How to manage tumor in undescended testis?
CT abdomen, pelvis, chest (for metastasis)
Tumor markers (α-FP, β-HCG, LDH)
Prepare for exploration & orchiectomy

How to manage in normally descended testis?
CT abdomen, pelvis, chest (for metastasis)
Tumor markers (α-FP, β-HCG, LDH)
Prepare for radical orchiectomy (inguinal)

How to treat tumor in normally descended testis? Radical orchiectomy via inguinal incision

How to treat cecal mass? Exploration & asses resectability
if resectable → Rt hemicolectomy
if irresectable → palliative Ileotransverse anastomosis
what does groin L.N. mean with cancer cecum? Infiltration of AAW

What is cryptorchidism? Absent both testes

What is difference between Undescended testis & Ectopic testis?

Undescended testis
Ectopic testis
Undeveloped (not pass ext. ring)
1-    abdominal
2-    Int. ring
3-    Ing. Canal
4-    Ext. ring
1-    Superficial ing. Pouch
2-    Femoral triangle
3-    Base of penis
4-    Perineum

OSCE advanced Qs
How to investigate case of unilat. undescended testis with prev. exploration?
Trans-aortic testic. angiography 

Groin Hernia (Inguinal/ Femoral)

How to diagnose inguinal hernia?
Mass in (Rt/Lt/bilat.) groin
Exp.imp. on cough
Reducible (Reducible/ not /Partially)
Example: Rt side oblique inguinal hernia non-complicated

Is ext. ring or 3 finger test used now? NO, obsolete due to pain

How to clinically differentiate inguinal from femoral hernia? Relation to P.T.
Above & med. → inguinal. Below & lat. → femoral

How to define P.T.?  1st bony prominence med. To inguinal lig. (rolled)
 OR        attachment of tendon adductor longus (flex, abd & ext.rot. thigh) رجل على رجل

How to clinically differentiate oblique from direct hernia? Internal ring test

How to do int. ring test? Better supine, standing if examiner asked
locate ASIS
locate P.T. (1st bony prominence med. to ASIS)
locate mid-point ing.canal (int.ring) is half way between ASIS & P.T.
control by 2 fingers
stand & cough: if contolled → indirect (oblique) / if not controlled → direct

How to differentiate inguinal from femoral hernia?
Inguinal H.
Femoral H.
Usually male
Usually female
Above & med. To P.T.
Below & lat. To P.T.
Usually reducible & give expansile imp.
Usually irreducible & no expansile imp.

How to clinically differentiate Oblique (indirect) from Direct inguinal hernia?
Oblique (indirect) Inguinal H.
Direct Inguinal H.
Remnant patent processus vaginalis
Weak post. Wall of ing. canal
Pass through int. ring
Pass through post. Wall of ing. canal
Pass through inguinal canal with cord
Not in canal & not related to cord
Can descend to scrotum

What is ttt inguinal hernia? Surgery (for fear complications- as all hernias)
1-    Lechnestein Open repair with mesh via inguinal incision (standard)
2-    Laparoscopic H repair: if bilateral or recurrent

Why surgery for hernia? Because it is liable for complications

What is complications of hernia?
1-    Irreduciblity & inflammation
2-    strangulation
3-    obstruction of contents (I.O.)

What is complication of hernial operations? General & Specific
1-    inf. (suspect mesh=F.B.)
2-    recurrence (recurrence in repair with mesh is < 2%  = 0.5-2%)
3-    hematoma
4-    testicular atrophy
5-    injury of vas
6-    Urinary retention, pain

what is rate of recurrence in repair with mesh? < 2%

D.D. mass in groin?
1- Skin & SCT: lipoma, seb.cyst, impl. Dermoid cyst
2- GIT: Hernia (inguinal or femoral)
3- GenitoUrinary T: ectopic testis +/- tumor, transplanted kid.
4- Vascular: a.→femoral a. aneurysm, v.→saphena varix, lymphatic→L.N.
5- ms: psoas abscess

What Qs can you ask for pt. with inguinal H.? ask about ppf
bowel problems (ascites & chr.constipation → straining)
urinary problems (BPH → straining)
chest problem (chr. Cough)

OSCE advanced Qs
What is position of hernia examination? It can be examined in 2 positions
Standing: should start standing to see & feel hernia easily
Supine: easier to define anatomical landmarks (But NO time in exam)
Causes of lost exp.imp. on cough? Omentum (omentocele), obstruction, strangulation
What is ttt femoral hernia?  Surgery (fo fear complications)
Low approach: (commonest) easy- for elective cases – risk of narrowing femoral v.
McEvedy (abdominal): for emergency (strangulated H.)- pfannsteil or midline
Inguinal (rare): if suspect inguinal vs femoral
What is consent for Inguinal H. repair?
1-      LA or GA
2-      Daucase surg.
3-      Risk of testicular damage, recurrence, hematoma, retention, pain, inf.
What are instructions to pt.?
1-      Early mobilization
2-      Keep area clean
3-      Avoid ppf (cough→antitussive, strain→laxative, no wt. lifting)

Epigastric Hernia

What is Epigastric hernia? Protrusion fat +/- peritoneal contents (rare) through linea alba (midway between umbilicus & xiphisternum)
The usual content is fat (so called, Fatty hernia of linea alba)

How to diagnose any hernia?
Mass at anatomical site
Expansile impulse on cough (=more prominent with cough or straining)
Reducible or partially reducible or history irreducibility

How to diagnose epigastric hernia?
Mass or fullness above umbilicus
Exp.imp. on cough
Partially reducible (because it contains omentum)
Defect can be felt /not

What is presentation of  pt. with epigastric hernia? Usually dyspepsia +/- mass

What is the ttt of epigastric hernia?
Repair: longitudinal incision to repair weak linea alba & repair fatty h. of linea alba

What Qs can you ask for pt. with epig.H.? ask about ppf as above

D.D. mass in epigastrium? See above


What is difference between Umbilical & Para-Umbilical H.?
PUH: beside umbilicus pushing ubmbilical scar (crescent) to side [BUT umb. scar is preserved] – usually > 40ys, ppf are ↑ intra-abd. Pr. (ascites, preg., COPD, obesity)
Umbilical H.: Hernia through umbilicus itself (umbilical scar is lost) – in neonate resolve by time (usually regress before puberty) – ttt: if not corrected → Mayo oper.

How to diagnose PUH (para-umbilical hernia)?
Mass above umbilicus + umb. scar preserved + scaly skin + dilated vs?????
Exp.imp. on cough
Reducible ( reducible/ not)

How to identify contents of hernia?
Palpation →gurgling = intest. / doughy → omentum
Auscultation → bowel sounds
X-ray lat. → intest. Gases

What are complications of PUH? (if huge)
1-    Irreduciblity (if huge) & inflammation & ulceration (in huge PUH)
2-    Strangulation (rare due to wide defect) (if huge)
3-    obstruction of contents (I.O.) (if huge)

What is ttt PUH? Surgery
Mayo oper.= dissection sac, reduction &overalp lower edge over upper edge + mesh
- If uncomplicated → Elective surgery (for fear complications)   
- If huge & irreducible → semi-urgent surgery

Incisional Hernia

What is incisional H.? Protrusion peritoeal content through weak abd. Scar (partial wound dehiscence= skin intact)

What are ppf. Of Incisional H.?
Pre-oper: old, immunocompromised, cancer, abd. Distension (ascites, HSM)
Oper.: poor technique, drain through same stab (should be through separate stab)
Post-oper: inf., hematoma, chest inf & atelectasis

What is ttt Incisional H.?
Surg: if fit, after control of ppf. → repair with mesh (good dissection sac, reduction contents, cut sac, closure in layers +/- drain)
Conservative: if unfit with persistent ppf.

OSCE advanced Qs
What are other types of H. you know & their anatomy?
Spigelian, Lumbar (greater or lesser triangle), Gluteal, Obturator, Sciatic


What type of stoma is this (Spot diagnosis)?
Rt side: ileostomy, urostomy (bag contains urine) or colostomy
Lt side: descending colostomy (after Hartman’s or abdomino-perineal resection)

How to examine stoma? Comment on
abdominal scar,
stoma itself (mucosa, spout or flush with skin, type (end, loop, 2 separate openings))
content (urine, stool, intest.contents)


What is varicocele? Dilated tortous pampiniform plexus of vs of testis [Rt → Rt testicular (gonadal) v. → drain to IVC] & [Lt → Lt testicul. v. → drain to Lt renal v.]

How to diagnose varicocele?
Inguinoscrotal swelling or fullness (Rt/ Lt/ Bilat.)
Sensation bag worms
Thrill on cough
Evacuated on elevation of scrotum (1ry)
Example: Rt side 1ry varicocele

What is thrill? Transmitted pulsation

What are types of varicocele?
1ry varicocele: 15% of male at puberty (98% Lt side)
2ry varicocele: renal tumor, pelvic tumor or retroperitoneal tumor or fibrosis

Why 1ry varicocele more common on Lt side (98%)?
1-    Lt testicular v. more vertical
2-    Lt testicular v. liable to compression by colon
3-    Lt testicular v. longer
4-    Lt testicular v. has no valves at its termination

What is presentation of varicocele (what bring pt. to clinic)?
1-    pain
2-    infertility

How to investigate  pt.? varicocele is clinical diagnosis but
Scrotal Duplex
Semen analysis

What is ttt varicocele?
Surgery: because it worsen with age (till surgery use Conservative: scrotal support & avoid long standing)
1-    Open Surgery
2-    Laparoscopic ligation
3-    Transfemoral embolization

What are approaches for Open varicocelectomy?
1-    high approach (Balomo): (complics: hematoma, recurrence, 2ry hydrocele)
2-    Inguinal approach: not done now
3-    Subinguinal:


What is Hydrocele? Accumulation of excess fluid in part or whole of processus vaginalis

How to diagnose hydrocele?
Non-tender purely scrotal swelling
Fluctuant (cystic)
Translucent (Transimmunable) (clear) or not (due to complication)
No testicular masses
Example: Rt side 1ry vaginal Hydrocele not complicated

What are types hydrocele?
1ry:     due to patent processus vaginalis (4 types)
1-    Vaginal: fluid in tunica vaginalis
2-    Encysted Hyd. Of cord: fluid in unobliterated part of proc.vag. around cord
3-    Cong Hyd.: fluid in all proc. vag. & communicating with abdomen
4-    Infantile Hyd.: fluid in all proc. vag. & NOT communicating with abdomen
2ry:    Post-oper. (varicocele, hernia), inf. or testicular tumor

Why some hydroceles are not translucelt (transimmunable)? Complications

What are complications of hydrocele?
Inf. , hge, rupture (rare)

Why this hydrocele 1ry (no tumors)? Age (old) & no testicular masses

What if bilat. Hydrocele? Do abdominal examination

Why not aspirate hydrocele anymore? NO, due to high incidence inf. & recurrence

How to differentiate hydrocele, encysted hydrocele of cord & spermatocele (sperm cyst)?
hydrocele: purely scrotal, not separable from testis, fluctuant, translucent / not
Encysted H cord: scrotal, separable with space bet. It & testis,……..
Spermatocele: scrotal, separable from testis by small gap,……….

What is ttt Hydrocele? Ask pt. How it affect his life
1-    Conservative
2-    Surgery: Lord (placation) or Jaboulay (excision excess sac)
3-    Aspiration: → recurrence & inf.

Epididymal Cyst (Spermatic cyst) (Spermatocele)

What is epididymal cyst?
Cyst in head of epididymis (retention cyst)
If full with sperms called Spermatocele (opaque) may be complication of vasectomy

What is ttt Epididymal cyst?
1-    Conservative: for fear fibrosis → infertility
2-    Surgery: if pain or cosmetic by Excision (rarely may need epididymectomy)

Pilonidal sinus

What is pilonidal sinus? Sinus +/- inf. At site of a hair in natal cleft

What is ttt pilonidal sinus?
Conservative: good hygiene, shave, keep dry
Surgery: drainage if abscess

What is complication of drainage pilonidal sinus & how to treat?
Recurrence & ttt by open technique


  1. This is probably the best, most concise step-by guide on clinical abdomen on how to / what to ...Hair Transplant Clinic in Hyderabad

  2. Hernia operation are one of the commonest operations &laparoscopic surgery has brought revolution to this disease. Bilateral inguinal hernia , unilateral inguinal hernia, recurrent hernia, large hernia in the inguinal region and femoral region are very well tackled by this approach of keyhole surgery. One of the most important type of hernia are the #incisional hernia & ventral hernias that happens in the abdominal wall which occurs postoperatively. They are conventionally done by open surgery but it poses lot of wound related complications like wound infections, pain, recurrent hernia, flap necroses, blacking of the skin & bad scar. All these complications can be avoided if one does laparoscopic repair .Normally the IPOM & IPOM PLUS are the the two approaches which are used for incisional hernias . Meshes used in IPOM & IPOM PLUS are very expensive and can be done away with modern way treatment of abdominal wall reconstruction know as AWR. Different approaches are Tep ie extra peritoneal approach and eTAP ie extended totally extraperitoneal approach and TAPP . These are all abbreviations of different types of hernias. Presently in very large hernias TAR is the operation in fashion. Bigger operations resulting in big incisional hernias require defect closure rather then bridging the defect by this type of an operation known as transverse abdomonis release (TAR). One can use a very large mesh 30×30 cm to reinforce abdominal wall which has been destroyed by incisional hernias. Patients functional results are superlative. These procedures can be done laparoscopically and has come as a huge advancement &revolution in hernia surgeries .

    Laparoscopic Recurrent incisional Hernia repair